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Free BETTER Shemale Animal

ISO/TS 34700:2016 provides requirements and guidance for the implementation of the animal welfare principles as described in the introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare of the OIE TAHC (Chapter 7.1).

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ISO/TS 34700:2016 applies to terrestrial animals bred or kept for the production of food or feed. The following areas are excluded: animals used for research and educational activities, animals in animal shelters and zoos, companion animals, stray and wild animals, aquatic animals, killing for public or animal health purposes under the direction of the competent authority, humane killing traps for nuisance and fur species.

This document is designed to guide users in conducting a gap analysis and developing an animal welfare plan that is aligned with the OIE TAHC. It can also be used to facilitate the implementation of any public or private sector animal welfare standards that meet at least the OIE TAHC.

One hundred seventy-nine Holstein male calves [44.7 kg of body weight (BW) and 8.3 d of age] participated in a series of 3 experiments to evaluate the effect of different forage sources on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior. Animals in each study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 different dietary treatments: control (CON) calves were fed starter feed without any forage provision (this treatment was repeated in each of the 3 experiments), and the 2 other treatments consisted of the same starter feed plus a forage source: chopped alfalfa (AH) or rye-grass hay (RH) in the first study; chopped oat hay (OH) or chopped barley straw (BS) in the second study; corn silage (CS) or triticale silage (TS) in the third study. All calves were offered 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter (DM) twice daily via a bottle until 50 d of age, and 2L of MR at 12.5% DM during the week before weaning (57 d of age). The study finished when calves were 71 d old. Starter feed, MR, and forage intakes were recorded daily and BW weekly. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. Compared with CON, animals receiving OH, TS, and BS consumed more starter feed (0.88 vs. 1.14, 1.17, 1.06 kg/d, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (0.72 vs. 0.93, 0.88, 0.88 kg/d, respectively). Animals in treatments RH, BS, CS, and TS consumed less forage (51 g/d) than AH (120 g/d) and OH (101 g/d) calves. Apparent organic matter, DM, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities did not differ among treatments (81.5, 81.1, and 54.4%, respectively). Apparent crude protein digestibility was greater in RH, CS, and AH treatments than in CON (80.5 vs. 76.4%, respectively). Compared with CON calves, animals in the AH treatment spent less time eating starter feed and lying, animals in AH and RH treatments spent more time ruminating, with odds ratios (OR) of 5.24 and 5.40, respectively. The AH and RH calves devoted less time to performing nonnutritive oral behaviors (OR: 0.38 and 0.34, respectively), and TS calves tended to devote less time to perform nonnutritive oral behaviors (OR: 0.21) 1h after being offered MR and solid feed. In conclusion, free-choice provision of a forage source to young calves improves feed intake and performance without impairing digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, and, depending on forage source, reduces nonnutritive oral behaviors and stimulates rumination.

Transport losses have also been reported at low ambient temperatures (Clark, 1979; Guàrdia et al., 1996; Rademacher and Davies, 2005; Ellis and Ritter, 2006; Sutherland et al.; 2009). Probable causes of the greater rates of DOAs or nonambulatory pigs in winter compared with other seasons may be more difficult animal handling through the slippery (due to ice) internal ramps at loading and unloading (Torrey et al., 2013a,b) and insufficient bedding of the trailer floor resulting in more pigs standing during transport to avoid the contact with the cold aluminum floor surface (Goumon et al., 2013). The presence of slippery ramps has been shown to result in more slips and falls at loading and unloading, greater heart rates during transport and unloading, and increased blood CK and lactate concentrations at slaughter (Goumon et al., 2013; Correa et al., 2014). The contact with the cold floor surface of the trailer due to insufficient bedding has been associated with increased number of carcass lesions, including frostbites (Goumon et al., 2013; Scheeren et al., 2014).

We excluded publicationsthat discussed one or more of the following: no exposure to animalsor animal feces, exposure to animal or animal feces in occupationalor industrial settings (e.g., commercial farms), exposure to animalurine, animal health outcomes, human respiratory health outcomes,and diseases related to exposure to insect feces (e.g., Chagas Disease).We excluded papers from HIC because piped sanitation and piped waterinfrastructure are prevalent, and we wanted to explore how humansare exposed to animal feces in LMIC where sanitation and water infrastructuremay be limited or nonexistent.

A recent analysis of agricultural, nutritional, and interviewdata, along with anthropometric measurements from sub-Saharan Africa,revealed inconsistent evidence for the effects of animal ownershipand consumption of animal-sourced foods on child growth. Childrenin households that consumed animal-sourced foods in Rwanda, Uganda,and Malawi had better anthropometric scores (WHZ and HAZ) than thosethat did not consume animal-sourced foods; however, children who consumedanimal-sourced foods in Ghana and Senegal had lower relative anthropometricscores (WHZ (Ghana only) and HAZ).47 Theanalysis of DHS from 30 sub-Saharan African countries similarly foundinconsistent results, but data revealed a slight protective effectof the number of animals owned on child stunting.26

Among bacteria, Campylobacter spp. infection was common among children livingwith domesticated animals, especially poultry, compared to childrennot living with animals, because children were likely to be in directcontact with chicken feces.5,42,57,58 A study in peri-urban Peru notedthat chickens, dogs, and cats were commonly infected with C. jejuni.37 Genetic analysisof animal and child stool samples in semirural Ecuador found that C. jejuni sequence types were identical between childrenand chickens, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits; atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) sequence types were identical betweenchildren and pigs, dogs, and chickens.59

Among protozoal pathogens, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Entamoeba spp. have beenassociated with exposure to animals. Cryptosporidium spp. identification in child stool was associated with the presenceof chickens in the household in Cambodia.60 In urban Kenya, a study among HIV/AIDS patients found that cryptosporidiosiswas associated with contact with animals,61 and in urban Democratic Republic of the Congo, exposure to farmpigs increased the odds of Cryptosporidium infectionamong HIV/AIDS patients.62 Individualswith household pets were 2.6 times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis assemblage A compared to those without petsin Malaysia.63 A study of outpatient stoolsamples from an urban hospital in Yemen found that contact with animalsincreased the risk of any intestinal protozoan infection (G. duodenalis, E. histolytica, E. dispar) and single infection with Entamoeba spp.; single infection of G. duodenalis was not associated with contact with animals.64 A study in rural China among individuals with pulmonarytuberculosis found that those raising chickens, ducks, or pigs, andworking farmlands barefoot to be significantly associated with protozoan(Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp., Trichomonas hominis) and helminthic infections(hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis), respectively.65

Immunocompromised populations are particularlysusceptible to infectionby microsporidia, specifically Enterocytozoon bieneusi. A study of microsporidiosis in HIV patients in hospitals in Lima,Peru found that contact with duck or chicken fecal droppings was arisk factor for infection with the E. bieneusi genotype,Peru-1, as were lack of running water, flush toilets, or garbage collection.66 Among HIV/AIDS patients in Kinshasa, DemocraticRepublic of the Congo, exposure to farm pigs was associated with higherodds of infection with E. bieneusi or Cryptosporidium spp.62 In urban India, a study amongHIV-positive individuals found that contact with pets and other animalsincreased the odds of infection with enteric pathogens, includingbacterial, protozoan, helminthic, and microsporidian species.67

We reviewed the literature to identifythe extent of human-animalcontact with attention to regional, cultural, and urban-rural contextualdifferences. The evidence of human-animal contact between regionaland cultural contexts revealed anecdotal study site-specific information,but did not provide a sufficiently generalizable set of behaviors.The comparative risk of exposure to animal feces in urban comparedto rural areas is therefore difficult to determine.

Modified F-diagram showingtransmission routes of animal fecesto humans. Adapted from Wagner, E.; Lanoix, J., Excreta disposal forrural areas and small communities. Monograph Series WorldHealth Organization.1958, 39, 182. Copyright 1958, World Health Organization.

Modified F-diagram including interventions that can blockhumanexposure to animal feces. Adapted from Wagner, E.; Lanoix, J., Excretadisposal for rural areas and small communities. MonographSeries World Health Organization.1958, 39, 182. Copyright 1958, World Health Organization.

It would be of considerable value to categorize and measure exposureto animal feces and to develop and evaluate interventions to mitigatethat risk. Using direct observations and interviews/discussion withdomestic animal owners, household members including women and children,veterinarians, and community leaders, more data are needed to 041b061a72

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